The common acne , also known as acne vulgaris, is a pathology characterized by inflammation of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland region, which usually affects the area of the face and trunk. It is common in young people and adolescents, usually in response to hormonal variations and genetic characteristics. Acne can affect both men and women, however, more severe cases are more frequently described in men.
Hormonal changes resulting from pregnancy, the menstrual cycle and some diseases can lead to acne. In addition, medications, cosmetics, poor diet and stress can facilitate the onset of infection.
Acne occurs due to the obstruction of the pilosebaceous unit (hair follicle and sebaceous gland), which causes the accumulation of secretions, cell debris and, frequently, the appearance of the mite Demodex folliculorum. Acne is characterized by the interaction between four factors:
Comedone formation (blockage of the pilosebaceous duct by an excess of keratin) and sebum production are closely related to the increase in hormones in adolescence. With the increase in sebum production, the proliferation of P. acnes and the beginning of the inflammatory process are favored.
The diagnosis of acne is quite simple, based mainly on the presence of the comedone, also called blackhead, which can be found closed or open. When it is closed, it has a whitish appearance. When it is open, it is dark due to the oxidation of fat by contact with air. In more severe cases, in addition to the comedone, the presence of cysts and abscesses is noticed.
Acne can be classified as inflammatory and non-inflammatory, in addition to varying, according to its severity, from grade I to V. Grade I has non-inflammatory characteristics and presents only comedones. Grades II to V are characteristic of inflammatory acne and exhibit different lesions according to the degree indicated. The most severe form is V, which is usually accompanied by fever.
The treatment varies according to each case, being, therefore, an individualized treatment. In mild and moderate cases, topical treatment is done using antibiotics combined with other products, such as salicylic acid. Systemic treatment is recommended for inflammatory acne and, in cases of severe acne, surgical treatment may be necessary.
In most cases, hygienic measures and aesthetic treatment may be necessary. Aesthetic treatment has the main function of reducing the scars left by the infection. Among these treatments, we can mention skin cleansing, peels , microdermabrasion and phototherapy.
The patient can follow some tips to improve the condition of acne. Here are some precautions you can take:
– Wash the skin with suitable soaps;
– Do not wash your skin constantly, as it can cause worsening of acne due to possible trauma to the site and irritation;
– Use alcoholic or gel based skin products;
– Healthy eating. Although there is no real evidence that a poor diet can cause acne, some studies suggest that there may be this interaction.
It is worth mentioning that the results are only observed after one month of treatment, being essential, therefore, that the patient does not expect an immediate response to the chosen therapy. An important point concerns the extraction of acne using the fingers, this method can cause unwanted scarring and, therefore, should not be performed.
Remember that, because it causes some embarrassment to the patient, acne can cause relationship and emotional problems. Its treatment, therefore, can be fundamental to a person’s self-esteem.